Will the high speed rail fare be entirely determined by the supply and demand of the market – Sohu F www.yinwowo.com

Will the price of high speed rail be completely decided by the supply and demand of the market? Sohu financial Railway Corporation began to have the pricing right of high-speed rail". The national development and Reform Commission in December 23, 2015 issued the "notice" on reform and improve the high-speed EMU Passenger Fare Policy release it has held the pricing of high-speed EMU and joint venture construction allows the design speed at 200 km above the passenger fare by the railway transport enterprise, since January 1, 2016 to develop. The "Circular" one, people from all walks of life have speculated since the high-speed rail fares will follow the market, prices in some popular votes, tight line, and in some popular lines starting price. The theoretical basis for this judgment of logic is reasonable, "a right in hand, they turn to line, Railway Corporation to open high-speed rail fares have been expecting for a long time, and according to the market determined price is prevailing in the market economy, everything seemed to be logical. But will the price of high-speed rail really be decided by the supply and demand of the market? I’m afraid the market supply and demand is only one factor that needs to be considered in the formulation of ticket prices. First of all, let go of high iron pricing is a progressive development of China market economy, operators have greater autonomy decide partial operation price according to the market demand, to further unify the rights and responsibility; secondly, high-speed rail fares release is conducive to improve the high-speed rail investment income, so as to improve the attractiveness of private capital investment in railway that is conducive to national enterprises of mixed ownership reform; third, can make up for the vast majority of high-speed rail lines in the loss, is conducive to the railway sector turnaround predicament fourth,; improved passenger competitiveness through flexible price flexibility in highway, aviation and waterway passenger transport market competition. However, in late February, the railway company still did not announce a new ticket price regulation program. On the one hand may be mainly because during the spring belongs to sensitive period, political influence reflects the social service functions of the major decisions may delay the effect is better; on the other hand, probably because of the "notice" requirements announced 30 days in advance to adjust the information, very suddenly, the railway company also without prior statistics knowledge and decision support it is difficult to immediately adjust quickly, according to the policy implementation of the proposed program of scientific system; of course, may be associated with the railway company semi administrative management system, the service of social benefits far outweigh the pursuit of the pursuit of economic benefits on the market, just as policy bonus reserves in the future. No matter in planned economy or market economy, railway passenger transport pricing is a scientific system of model system, affect the situation as a whole, especially the high cost of trial and error of social network of the whole system, even in the overall market economy country, transportation is not a completely rely on the market to determine the relationship between supply and demand the price of products and services industry. Moreover, in view of current railway resources monopoly properties and hierarchical management structure, monopoly enterprises belongs to the railway company controlled by the state, once fully according to the principle of market economy, improve profits from the pursuit of revenue management perspective, is bound to increase price decision by reducing supply)

高铁票价真会完全由市场供需关系决定吗-搜狐财经   铁路总公司开始有了“高铁定价权”。国家发改委在2015年12月23日发布的《关于改革完善高铁动车组旅客票价政策的通知》中放开了其一直持有的定价权,允许设计时速在200公里以上的高铁动车组及合资建设的客运专线旅客票价由铁路运输企业,从2016年1月1日起自主制定。  《通知》一出,各界人士纷纷猜测自此高铁票价会随行就市,在部分热门的、票源比较紧张的线路上涨价,而在有些冷门的线路开始降价。有此判断的理论基础逻辑上是合理的,“一朝权在手,便把令来行”,铁路总公司对放开高铁票价期待已久,而且根据市场因素来决定价格是市场经济中通行的做法,一切调整好像都是顺理成章的事情。但高铁票价真的从此就会完全由市场供需关系决定吗?恐怕市场供需关系只是票价制定中需要考量的一个因素而已。  首先,放开高铁定价权是中国市场经济发展的一个进步,经营者有更大的自主权根据市场需求决定部分运营产品的价格,责权利进一步统一;其次,高铁票价放开有利于提高高铁铁路的投资收益,从而提高民营资本投资铁路的吸引力,有利于国家的企业混合所有制改革;第三,可以弥补目前绝大部分的高铁运营线路中的亏损,有利于铁路部门的扭亏解困;第四,在公路、航空和水运的客运市场竞争中通过灵活多变的价格适应性提高铁路客运的竞争力。  然而时至2月下旬,铁路总公司依旧没有公布出一个新的客票价格调节方案。一方面可能主要是因为春运期间属于敏感时期,社会服务职能体现的政治影响重大,延迟决策可能效果更佳;另一方面则可能是因为《通知》要求提前30天公布调整信息,事出突然,铁路总公司还没有事前的数据统计与决策支持的知识储备,难以立即根据政策调整迅速提出科学系统的实施方案;当然还有可能与铁路总公司的半行政体制管理机制有关,其对服务社会效益的追求远大于对市场经济效益的追求,政策只是作为未来的储备红利而已。  无论在计划经济中还是在市场经济中,铁路客运的定价都是一个系统科学的模型体系,牵一发而动全身,特别是社会网络全系统的试错成本极高,即便是在全面市场经济的国家里,交通运输也不是一个完全依托市场供需关系确定产品及服务价格的行业。  而且,以铁路目前的资源垄断属性和层次管理架构来看,铁路总公司属于受政府管制的垄断企业,一旦完全依据市场经济原则,从追求提高利润的收益管理角度,必然会有通过减少供给而提高价格的决策冲动,如三桶油在最初发改委决定降价时的缺油断供、而后政府行政处罚又使得缺油断供得以禁止的现象。  同时,大面积的高铁建设及运营也带来了大多数运营线路的运力虚糜和经营亏损,简单而很小幅度的高铁提价所带来不多的利润补偿难以从根本上提高民营资本对铁路投资的吸引力,更不可能改变目前大多数线路的经营亏损现实。  另外,铁路高铁客运在面对并行的公路和航空的竞争中,特别还有既有线的普通列车客源竞争中,也不可能承受大面积票价上涨而进一步失去多数线路虚糜的用户市场,而更应该体现社会职能通过实现连接城市的外向度增长,进而提升全社会资源配置优化的力度并降低社会网络成本。而且,公路客运往往是短途为主,长途客运汽车、长途出租车、个人汽车租赁和新型的顺风车多家竞争,而航空客运则是多家航空公司争夺一个航线交路,在铁路尚未实现网运分离、既有线与高铁平行竞争的情况下,完全按市场供需关系确定票价可能会影响全社会服务质量,政府也不可能因此完全放手。  但高铁定价权的下放的确极大地利好铁路总公司。作为经营的主体,利用定价的自主权机制,铁路总公司可以灵活地用变动供给调节市场需求、合理配置运力资源,如利用价格折扣模式实现对客流需求的削峰平谷,可以合理地低成本调整车流交路、增减车流密度;利用最优价格歧视模型,提高目标细分市场的旅客用户满意度、合理分配紧缺的客运资源;可以有资源和机会推行高铁的长旅客计划、高铁会员制和最优二步收费机制,增强旅客的客户粘性,提高高铁客运市场的整体利润;还可以进一步推行间接细分市场定价机制,推行各种高铁优惠券、差异化细分市场的车票与其他消费的捆绑定价,实现真正的高铁客运收益管理和持续溢价,持续改善旅客的用户满意度水平,优化高铁以及既有线普通客车的资源配置和资源复用能力。  因此,对于制订票价的主体��铁路总公司来说,在发改委放开高铁定价权的机遇中,铁路总公司不应简单地只以市场供需关系调节高铁票价,靠给紧张的热线涨价而给虚麋的线路降价,而更应该站在铁路战略发展的角度上,以灵活的票价优化调整铁路的资源配置,以更优化的价格歧视、价格杠杆和价格捆绑等收益管理模式实现系统利润增长、细分市场扩展与旅客的客户满意度提升。而对于票价的受体��旅客来说,且放宽心,高铁票价大幅度高涨的可能性不大,短期涨价的可能性也很小,而价格折扣促销给旅客更大优惠的可能性倒有期望更早到来。  (作者系清华大学工程管理硕士(MEM)教育中心执行主任、博士生导师)相关的主题文章: